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Erik Hindsersson Hastesko



                                                                                            

Erik Hindersson - Hastesko

Medieval family of Hindersson - Hästesko descended from Henry Ostensson to Kalmarsnäs in Kemiö (Finland), who in the late 1400s or early 1500s received letters nobility, and his sons received a new prestige in 1559, with a horseshoe in the weapon.

 

 

Eriks younger brother Jakob , in historical works of the weapon called Hästesko, a name, which he never availed, lord of Sjundby in Siuntio and Kirkniemi in Lohja (Finland), Henrik Östensson son, warrior and officer (the year of birth unknown), died in July 1567, 1551-52 was the Master of Laws in Hollola District, 1558-61 in the East in 1562-67 and Raasepori Sääksmäki County (Finland). 1559-65 he was the sheriff in Vyborg Castle, above the 1563 and 1564 at times gubernator in Finland. Appointed a colonel, and Privy Councilor war in 1565, he was sent by King Eric XIV with an army to rescue the besieged by the Danes and cut off Varberg siege army retreat.

The Danish commander, Daniel Rantzau, annulled the siege and retreated, but came October 20 that year at this Hästeskos of Axtorna Köinge village in the parish. Although Hästeskos troops were superior in number, however, he suffered as a result of a strong Danish cavalry attack a thorough defeat. In January 1566 he undertook a rampage through southern Sweden, and in September the same year he together with Charles de Mornay an attempt to evict Rantzau from his fortified camp at Gull's meadows, but fell himself at a reconnaissance of the enemy's hands September 20.

Eriks son was named Nils Ersson-Hindersson and the bouth worked as-Birkarl:

Birkarlar was merchants who were at least since the early 1300s appeared in the Torne, Lule and Pite Lapp chips. Individual birkarlar had the exclusive right to act with some Sami, and paid the fee for this one to the crown, which in return gave them his protection. The crown itself has not yet received any taxation of the Sami in this area.

After Gustav Vasa introduced direct taxation of the Sami people in all the Swedish Lapland birkarlarna continued their activities as merchants without a privileged position. It has since spoken of birkarlar also in the other patch chips.

Word etymology is disputed

History up to 1550

During 1100 - and 1200-the numbers, it was probably the Republic of Novgorod (in competition with the Norwegian king) had control of the fur trade with the Sami in the Arctic. This is reflected in all the coins and other objects of Eastern descent who are in custody Sami finds from this period. The Swedish's influence extended no further north than the Skellefteå river.

In holding the finds are no Eastern objects have probably dated to the 1300s or later. It is probably related to Sweden during this century might utvigda its sphere along the entire west side of the Bothnian Bay and further up to the watershed between Tornio and Kemi rivers. The Swedish trade in the region, was now handled by birkarlar, who had a privileged position of the crown.

The original birkarlarna was active in precisely those areas where Sweden's influence grew during the 1300s - the Torne, Lule and Pite Lapp chips. Ume Sami in Lapland and Ångermanna patch of land, which had already been under Swedish control, was "Konungz Overlap", which meant that they paid the tax directly to the king through his bailiffs. [3]

It is unclear whether Chemistry patch of land had its own birkarlar, or it was birkarlar from the Torne Lapland who worked there.

Early sources

The first known mention of birkarlar found in the so-called "They tell the Charter of the 1328th This is not preserved in the original, but only in a few later copies, which created a basis for discussion of the content. The Charter is written in Latin. The document, signed by King Magnus Eriksson's Seneschal Knut Jonsson, speaks to Halsingland birkarlar in Södertälje and reached an agreement on the northernmost lot of Halsingland (ie the area around the Gulf of Bothnia) without hindrance or interference would be developed. Those who settled in the area would have a tax exemption until the king came of. It was also agreed that no one would prevent the Sami in their hunts, nor "birkarlaboa" to stay with the Sami and the return from them with their property. However, nothing is said about the birkarlarna would act as tax collectors. The words used to describe them is partly Birkarlaboa (twice) and Pirkkala. [5] [6]

Content in the numerator charter was confirmed in 1358 by a letter of King Erik Magnusson, from which he drew city "all the Priuilegier, Nader and Frijheter" previously granted to those who live "in the Norrebotn Lapmarcken". The King forbade anyone to restrict in any way the "Birckerlar, which öckna (fate) in the forests: the Endar efther their tarffue benefit SOKI wele."

Birkarlar occurs thereafter in any court records. When Judge Thing in Piteå 1424 City drew Judge Nils Gustafsson (Ross's dynasty) an agreement between birkarlar who get into disputes with each other. The document called for mostly birkarlarna patch danger (lappfarare), but it also speaks once all-Bircherlom. The agreement would remain at its birkarlarna "gamble Rett and Charter", which is also specified. For the first point of the Charter is clear that birkarlarna had divided between themselves the Sami, Sami, so that each could only act with a certain birkarl. It is said that if a patch danger saved the life of a Sami by providing him with food and gear he needed for life's necessities, he would thereafter for three years the exclusive right to trade with him, unhindered by their rightful owners. Subsequently, samen return to the correct ticket holder. The Charter also states that only the lappfarare whose fate was at least an entire ekorrskinn got to go up to the Sami people to recover any of them. Finally, it was confirmed that no one was "riffua or slit of the paupers' or require more renskjuts of them than what has been the custom of the age.

The Sami belong to different birkarlar is also shown by a donation letter from 1390, which speaks of "the patch, which the farm was wrecked" - they were a ägorättsobjekt like soil and waters. The Sami were also transferred. The year 1454 confirmed the steward of Norrbotten, Sten Henriksson, namely that some Sami from Häme rightfully belonged birkarlar from Luleå and Piteå (and not the king), because "the Them Medh Rette skiffte fångitt haffua af sine Skifftebröder of Tauesteland" .

Published in 1498 stated in a letter from King to His representatives birkarlarna in Luleå and Piteå would always enjoy their old condition of the Sami people who lived in the North Sea. Any further description of this old claimed was never done. [13] [14] In another letter from that year specifically mentions the birkarlar ("baer Chara") took up the king patch tax, in addition to its own commercial .

Early Swedish Nobility

Portuguese Damian a Goes, which toured in Sweden during the 1500s, counted birkarlarna to the nobility .

Birkarlarnas stadgeskatt (tax)

1528 appeared birkarlarna David Larsson and Nils Jönsson of Gustav Vasa to explain what stadgeskatt (a tax that ended with the same amount each year) they paid for the right to trade with the Sami people: a total of 16 hours clock works (ekorrskinn) and four raccoon skins. This was not much: Sami Ume patch of land, which ran directly under the Crown, sheriff, paid annually two hours marten skins, which represented a significantly higher value than ekorrskinn. King doubled the tax immediately, but took birkarlarna while under their protection and confirming their old trade privileges. He forbade officers and bailiffs to be barriers to them in any way.

Enforcement of the accounts shows that Luleå and Piteå socknars birkarlar subsequently paid with 16 hours clock works and four raccoon skins, while Tornio birkarlar alone paid the same. The latter was of course the whole time Torne Lapland, an area extending over Finnmarksvidda to the Atlantic coast of the Varanger peninsula Tysfjord. Although the new tax was still low became the force in two decades.

Gustav Vasa's tax reform

The large quantities of skins received the crown from Ume patch of land made it clear to Gustav that he could get much more revenue by taxing all Sami directly instead of using birkarlarna as intermediaries. The year 1548 saw a shift to direct taxation of the Sami in the Lule and Pite Lapp chips, which this year gave the 30 hours clock works for the king's bailiff Jöns Håkansson. The year 1550 was the same reform in Torne Lapland. After this became birkarlarna simply merchants, but any particular privileged position vis-à-vis the crown. [18]

Although Chemistry patch of land came at about the same time during the Crown bailiffs. The year 1554 belonged to this patch of land to the Torne Lapland DOMAIN, but then it was mostly his own sheriff.

History after 1550

As the king's bailiffs now would raise taxes directly to the Sami was competition for the goods with birkarlarna, who continued with their trade. During the late 1500s there were numerous complaints about birkarlarnas activities. For example, there is an unsigned note from 1588 that birkarlarna in Ostrobothnia bought up the best skins and sold them to the Russians. Patch steward had banned birkarlarna to withdraw to Lapland, but joined by the steward, but this had yet occurred .

When Duke Charles in 1606 gave the church construction sites in Lapland, this meant a strict regulation of the patch of land trade. The church became Places in Lycksele Ume patch of land, Arvidsjaur in Lapland Pite, Lule in Jokkmokk Lapland and Enontekiö in Torne Lapland. The Sami were collected at these sites when Tomas Fair before Christmas, last Christmas Eve, and be there to Candlemas Day on 2 February. Then they would "seek their nourishment in the wilderness" until Lady Day, on March 25, when they would come back to church sites and remain there a week or two, depending on the represented. In connection with these collections, it would be marketed.

Charles decided to birkarlarna not got access to markets overlap, while the crown bailiffs and compete with them on trade. Bailiffs could go to church sites, as soon as the Sami were there, raise taxes and buy the goods necessary for the Crown needs. Only then was birkarlarna come there to exercise their trade. Since it was the bailiffs who would travel around and raise taxes at all venues set different dates for birkarlarnas arrival. In Lycksele got birkarlarna from Umeå come at thirteen day. To Arvidsjaur got birkarlarna from Piteå to the twentieth day. To the beat birkarlarna Jokkmokk Lulea come from Paul's at the Fair, on 25 January. To Enontekiö got birkarlarna from Tornio come at Candlemas, on 2 February.

Thord Daniel son deer, which conveniently realized Duke Charles's plans, also made up a list of people who "were birkarlar of age, and used their trade with the patches on the mountain, and with sjöfinnarna by the North Sea". The number was in Torne Lapland 22, the patch of land 17 Lule, Pite patch of land 16 in the Ume lappmark 11th These numbers were established by Charles - more birkarlar got it gets.

Duke decreed that birkarlarna two and two sheds were built in the marketplace. Trading was only done in these shops, and only during daytime. Furthermore birkarlarna pay tithe of skins, dried fish and other goods they purchased. Specific sworn toll road would be appointed to help patch bailiffs to take up this duty.

 

Henceforth birkarlarna would not "drag penalty when life on the Lapland, which is made to do so", but only act with the Sami people at designated times and places. However, they were still allowed to deduct the North Sea and the act which, if they so wished.

The often-mentioned reports that birkarlarna had historically acted as the king's tax collectors from 1600-century, therefore, from a time when birkarlarna definitely did not have this feature. This may be related to the Swedish ambition to claim that crown for a long time had control over the entire northern area .

Birkarlar as bailiffs patch.

With the crown began with direct taxation of the Sami must also appoint bailiffs. These people must have the local knowledge and contacts, and initially brought all patch bailiffs in the northernmost Lapland from birkarlarnas circuit. It was Olof Henriksson from Niemisel in Tornio parish, who in 1554 became patch sheriff of Tornio and Kemi Lapland, Hans Nilsson from Ängesbyn in Luleå Parish, who in 1553 and 1554 were patch sheriff of Lule patch of land, and Nils Jönsson from Ersnäs in Luleå Parish, who in 1555 was Pite Lapp sheriff in Lapland. Nils Jönsson remained until 1562, when he was succeeded by his son Jöns Nilsson, which in turn was the sheriff to 1571st Then came Olof Nilsson, who possibly was a brother of Jons and who served for ten years. The relatively long term of office has been interpreted as that the king was generally happy with their new stewards.

Birkarlarnas origin and etymology of the word

From the 1600s are written traditions that birkarlarna would have come from Pirkkala (fi. Pirkkala) in the province of Satakunta in Finland, current. Such information includes, John Bureus Sumlen and works of Olaus Petri Niurenius, who was vicar from 1619 to 1645 in Umeå. It is noteworthy that this is 300 years after birkarlarnas behavior of sources, and even after birkarlarna lost its favored position. Today there seems to be some researchers who see no connection between Pirkkala birkarlarna and parish.

Several other attempts have been made to explain the origin of the word will, and at least 20 different answers have been presented. Among the words that were considered to have given rise to the word birkarl including:

Pirkkiö, the island at the mouth of the Torne River. It was Johan Nordlander, who said that this island was an ancient trading post and the name had been linked to Birka in lake Mälaren. Other researchers have rejected this theory for several reasons, including because the island's name comes from the Finnish word for nyröjning, Perkkiö, as well as historical vegetation studies can not be used as a market before 1400's second half.

Bjur, namely the beaver. This was Birger Steckzéns theory, which was to birkarlarna would have begun by beaver trappers and beaver fur traders. The theory assumed that Tornedalen originally would have had a Swedish population, which is deemed to be.

Birke, meaning "a piece of birch wood or birch bark." Stefan Söderlind Birke said that were used as writing materials, and thus had come to be associated with birkarlar.

Birk, corresponding to a specially organized emergency legislation which directly caused by Royal Charter. Birkarlarna would not really be Birk-men. This theory was put forward by Jouko Vahtola.

Birka, a Russian word meaning karvstock. Such was previously used to hold the bill in relation to taxation. Thomas Wallerström attention to this explanation, first set out by KB Wiklund, and linked up word with the theory presented below.

Another point to note that birkefogde during the 1500s was an indication of the LLM in Sweden






 
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